Nutritional and sensory quality of buns enriched with soy fiber (Okara)

Nutritional quality of fiber enriched buns.

  • Bhavya S.N. Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Mysore, Mysuru, 570 006, India
  • Jamuna Prakash Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Mysore, Mysuru, 570 006, India


Dietary fiber obtained from by-products of food industries acts as a potential functional food ingredient and used in baking, beverages and meat products. Soybean, a rich source of plant protein is a suitable substitute to dairy milk. Processing of soy milk leaves behind large quantities of fiber, which could be incorporated in food formulation as a dietary supplement. With this background high fiber buns were formulated using soy fiber at different levels and analyzed for nutritional quality, physical characteristic and sensory acceptability. Nutritional characteristics of enriched buns were determined using standard methods and results (per 100 g) were: protein, 7.1-7.7 g; fat, 4.8-6.6 g; iron 2.2-3.0 mg and calcium, 74.0-81.0 mg. Phytic acid and tannin were in the range of 19.0-22.8 mg and 47.4-50.1 mg/100g respectively. Bioaccessible Fe ranged from 11.1-23.3 % and Ca from 50.2-95.5 % of total.  In vitro digestible protein and starch ranged from 46.8-49.5 and 34.9-68.6 % of total respectively. Addition of fiber influenced the color of the buns as measured by Hunter Lab color meter. Incorporation of soy fiber lowered sensory scores of buns. In conclusion, soy fiber buns were nutritionally superior and can fulfill the consumer requirement of health food. 

Keywordsfiber enrichment, nutritional composition, digestible protein and starch, bioaccessible iron and calcium, sensory quality


Download data is not yet available.


  • (2000). Approved methods of the AACC (10thed.). St. Paul, MN: American Association of Cereal Chemists (Methods 08-01, 30-25, 44-15A, 46-10, 54-10, 54-21).

  • Akeson, W.R. & Stahmann, M.A. (1964). A pepsin- pancreatin digest index of protein quality evaluation. Journal of Nutrition. 83 (3), 257-261.

  • Ammar, A.S.M. (2014). Food processing wastes: Characteristics, treatments and utilization review. Journal of Agricultural & Veterinary Science. 7(1), 71-84.

  • Anuwarul, H., Shams, U. & Anuwarul A. (2002). The effect of aqueous extracted wheat bran on the baking quality of biscuit. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 37, 453-462.

  • (2005). Determination of moisture. Official Methods of Analysis, 18th ed. AOAC International. Washington, D.C., USA.

  • Asp, N.G., Johansson C.G., Hallmer H. & Siljestrom M. (1983). Rapid enzymatic assay of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 31(3), 476-482.

  • Baker, C.J.L. (1952). The determination of oxalates in fresh plant material. 77, 340–344.

  • Batey, I. & Ryde, N. (1982). Starch analysis using thermostable alpha-amylases.Starch-Stärke. 34 (4), 125-128.

  • Batifoulier, F., Verny, M.A., Chanliaud, E., Remesy, C. & Demigne, C. (2005). Effect of different breadmaking methods on thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine content of wheat bread. European Journal of Agronomy. 42(1), 101-108.

  • Calixto, F.S. & Abia, R. (1991). Resistant starch: an indigestible fraction. Fasc, Grasas y Aceites. 42(3), 239-242.

  • Cauvain, S.P. & Young, L.S. (2006). Baked products: Science, Technology and Practice, Wiley-Blackwell, UK. pp- 32- 33, 60-61.

  • Dewettinck, K., Van Bockstaele, F., Kuhne, B., Van de Walle, D., Courtens, T.M. &Gellynck X. (2008). Nutritional value of bread: Influence of processing, food interaction and consumer perception, A review. Journal of Cereal Science. 48,243-257.

  • Dhingra, S. &Jood, S. (2002). Organoleptic and nutritional evaluation of wheat bread supplemented with soybean and barley flour. Food Chemistry. 77, 479-488.

  • (1995). Food and Drug Administration. Food labeling: Reference Daily Intakes, Part II; Final rule. Fed Regist.1995; 60: 67164-6717.

  • Heshe, G.G., Haki, G.D., Woldegiorgis, A.Z. & Gemede, H.F. (2016). Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat common in Ethiopia and recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread. Food Science and Nutrition. 4(4),534-543.

  • Holm, J., Bjork, I., Asp, N.G., Sjoberg, L.B. & Lundquists, L. (1985) Starch availability in vitro and in vivo after flaking steam cooking and popping of wheat. Journal of Cereal Science. 3(3), 193-206.

  • Kumar, P., Yadava, R., Gollen, B., Kumar, S., Verma, R. & Yadav, S. (2011). Nutritional content and medicinal properties of wheat: a Review. Life Science and Medical Research. 22, 1-10. E-ISSN: 19487886

  • Luten, J., Crew, H., Flynn, A., Van Deal, P., Kastenmayer, P., Hurrel, R., Deelstra, H., Shen, L., Fairweather-Trait, S.J., Hickson, K., Farre, R., Schlemmer, U. & Frohlich, W. (1996). Interlaboratory trial on the determination of the in vitro iron dialysability from food. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture. 72, 415–424.;2-X

  • Martinez-Villaluenga, C., Horszwald, A., Frias, J., Piskula, M., Vidal-Valverde, C. & Zielinski, H. (2009). Effect of flour extraction rate and baking process on vitamin B1 and B2 contents and antioxidant activity of ginger-based products.European Food Research and Technology.230, 119-124.

  • McKee, L.H. & Latner, T.A. (2000). Underutilized sources of dietary fiber: A review. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition.55, 285-304.

  • Ndife, J. & Abbo, E. (2009). Functional Foods: Prospects and Challenges in Nigeria. Journal of Science and Technology. 1(5): 1-6.

  • Nishida, H., Uauy, R., Kumanyika, S. & Shetty, P. (2004). The Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on diet, nutrition and Prevention of chronic diseases: process, product and policy implications. Public Health Nutrition. 7(1a), 245-250.

  • Oser, B.L. (1965). Hawk’s Physiological Chemistry, 14th Ed, Tata McGraw – Hill Publishing Co. Ltd, New Delhi, India, 1965, 1263 – 1265.

  • Palamidis, N. & Markakis, P. (1980). Effect of baking and toasting on the protein quality and lysine availability of breads, Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 4(3): 199-210.

  • Ragaee, S., Guzar, I., Abdel-Aal, E.S.M., & Seetharaman, K. (2012).Bioactive components and antioxidant capacity of Ontario hard and soft wheat varieties. Canadian Journal of Plant Science.92, 19-30.

  • Raghuramulu, N., Nair, M.K. & Kalyanasundaram S. (2003). A manual of laboratory techniques. National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, Jamai-Osmania, Hyderabad, India.

  • Ranganna, S. (2007). Handbook of Analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill. New Delhi. ISBN: 0074518518

  • Sozer, N., Cicerelli, L., Heinio, R.L. &Ppoutanen, K. (2014). Effect of wheat bran addition on in vitro starch digestibility, physic-mechanical and sensory properties of biscuits. Journal of Cereal Science.60(1),105-113.

  • Thompson, D.B. & Erdman Jr. J.W. (1982). Phytic acid determination in soybeans. Journal of Food Science.47, 513- 317.

  • (2018). Wheat-Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA Official of Global Analysis October 201819

  • Wickramarathna G.L., Arampath P.C. (2003). Utilization of Okara in bread making, Ceylon Journal of Science Biological Science, 31, 29-33
  • Published
    How to Cite
    S.N., Bhavya; PRAKASH, Jamuna. Nutritional and sensory quality of buns enriched with soy fiber (Okara). Journal of Engineering & Processing Management, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 2, p. 23-31, dec. 2018. ISSN 2566-3615. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 16 oct. 2021. doi: