Recovery of yttrium oxide from titanium-aluminium based wastes

  • Srećko Stopić IME Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
  • Sebastian Kallabis IME Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
  • Bernd Friedrich IME Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling, RWTH Aachen University, Germany


Yttrium belongs to the rare earth elements and critical metals. Yttrium oxide is mostly used in fluoroscent lamps, production of electrodes, in electronic filters, lasers, superconductors and as additives in various titanium-aluminium materials to improve their properties. Recovery of yttrium oxide from secondary sources such as red mud, coatings from ceramic industry and phosphors is extremely important. The main aim of this study is to examine the selective recovery of yttrium oxide from Al-Ti based secondary materials using one combined method based mostly on leaching for selective recovery of yttrium containing:  crashing and grinding of materials, sieving, leaching of chosen fine fraction with hydrochloric acid, precipitation with oxalic acid in order to produce a pure yttrium oxalate, filtration and a final thermal decomposition of yttrium oxalate. The present study summarized mostly the influence of different reaction parameters such as leaching temperature, time and concentration of hydrochloric acid on yttrium dissolution from Al-Ti based secondary materials. An increase of dissolution time and temperature increases yttrium dissolution. An increase of pressure from an atmospheric pressure to 0.5 MPa at 150 °C leads to the maximum dissolution of yttrium (about 98.6 %). The final produced yttrium oxide after thermal decomposition of yttrium oxalate was analyzed using SEM and EDS-analysis.

Keywords: yttrium oxide, hydrometallurgy, leaching, recycling


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  • Published
    How to Cite
    STOPIĆ, Srećko; KALLABIS, Sebastian; FRIEDRICH, Bernd. Recovery of yttrium oxide from titanium-aluminium based wastes. Journal of Engineering & Processing Management, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. 9-20, july 2018. ISSN 2566-3615. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 13 aug. 2020. doi: